Product Categories
Contact Us

Qingdao Shengmei Machinery Co.,Ltd

Address: No.6 Wangjialou Industrial Area, Huangdao District, Qingdao City, China

Contact: Sandry Pang

TEL: +86-532-85131608

Moblie: +86-18660248878

Fax: +86-532-86158266

Email: shengmei@shengmeicast.com

Home > News > Content
Sand Casting
Qingdao Shengmei Machinery Co.,Ltd | Updated: Sep 19, 2017

Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via sand casting process.[1]

Molds made of sand are relatively cheap, and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. In addition to the sand, a suitable bonding agent (usually clay) is mixed or occurs with the sand. The mixture is moistened, typically with water, but sometimes with other substances, to develop the strength and plasticity of the clay and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. The sand is typically contained in a system of frames or mold boxes known as a flask. The mold cavities and gate system are created by compacting the sand around models, or patterns, or carved directly into the sand.

Basic process[edit]

There are six steps in this process:

  1. Place a pattern in sand to create a mold.

  2. Incorporate the pattern and sand in a gating system.

  3. Remove the pattern.

  4. Fill the mold cavity with molten metal.

  5. Allow the metal to cool.

  6. Break away the sand mold and remove the casting.

Haandform-e.png

Components[edit]

Patterns[edit]

From the design, provided by an designer, a skilled pattern maker builds a pattern of the object to be produced, using wood, metal, or a plastic such as expanded polystyrene. Sand can be ground, swept or strickled into shape. The metal to be cast will contract during solidification, and this may be non-uniform due to uneven cooling. Therefore, the pattern must be slightly larger than the finished product, a difference known as contraction allowance. Different scaled rules are used for different metals, because each metal and alloy contracts by an amount distinct from all others. Patterns also have core prints that create registers within the molds into which are placed sand cores. Such cores, sometimes reinforced by wires, are used to create under-cut profiles and cavities which cannot be molded with the cope and drag, such as the interior passages of valves or cooling passages in engine blocks.

Paths for the entrance of metal into the mold cavity constitute the runner system and include the sprue, various feeders which maintain a good metal 'feed', and in-gates which attach the runner system to the casting cavity. Gas and steam generated during casting exit through the permeable sand or via risers,[note 1] which are added either in the pattern itself, or as separate pieces.

Tools[edit]

In addition to patterns, the sand molder could also use tools to create the holes.

Molding box and materials[edit]

A multi-part molding box (known as a casting flask, the top and bottom halves of which are known respectively as the cope and drag) is prepared to receive the pattern. Molding boxes are made in segments that may be latched to each other and to end closures. For a simple object—flat on one side—the lower portion of the box, closed at the bottom, will be filled with a molding sand. The sand is packed in through a vibratory process called ramming, and in this case, periodically screeded level. The surface of the sand may then be stabilized with a sizing compound. The pattern is placed on the sand and another molding box segment is added. Additional sand is rammed over and around the pattern. Finally a cover is placed on the box and it is turned and unlatched, so that the halves of the mold may be parted and the pattern with its sprue and vent patterns removed. Additional sizing may be added and any defects introduced by the removal of the pattern are corrected. The box is closed again. This forms a "green" mold which must be dried to receive the hot metal. If the mold is not sufficiently dried a steam explosion can occur that can throw molten metal about. In some cases, the sand may be oiled instead of moistened, which makes casting possible without waiting for the sand to dry. Sand may also be bonded by chemical binders, such as furane resins or amine-hardened resins.

Chills[edit]

To control the solidification structure of the metal, it is possible to place metal plates, chills, in the mold. The associated rapid local cooling will form a finer-grained structure and may form a somewhat harder metal at these locations. In ferrous castings, the effect is similar to quenching metals in forge work. The inner diameter of an engine cylinder is made hard by a chilling core. In other metals, chills may be used to promote directional solidification of the casting. In controlling the way a casting freezes, it is possible to prevent internal voids or porosity inside castings.

Cores[edit]

Main article: Core (manufacturing)

To produce cavities within the casting—such as for liquid cooling in engine blocks and cylinder heads—negative forms are used to produce cores. Usually sand-molded, cores are inserted into the casting box after removal of the pattern. Whenever possible, designs are made that avoid the use of cores, due to the additional set-up time and thus greater cost.

With a completed mold at the appropriate moisture content, the box containing the sand mold is then positioned for filling with molten metal—typically ironsteelbronzebrassaluminiummagnesium alloys, or various pot metal alloys, which often include leadtin, and zinc. After being filled with liquid metal the box is set aside until the metal is sufficiently cool to be strong. The sand is then removed, revealing a rough casting that, in the case of iron or steel, may still be glowing red. In the case of metals that are significantly heavier than the casting sand, such as iron or lead, the casting flask is often covered with a heavy plate to prevent a problem known as floating the mold. Floating the mold occurs when the pressure of the metal pushes the sand above the mold cavity out of shape, causing the casting to fail.

After casting, the cores are broken up by rods or shot and removed from the casting. The metal from the sprue and risers is cut from the rough casting. Various heat treatments may be applied to relieve stresses from the initial cooling and to add hardness—in the case of steel or iron, by quenching in water or oil. The casting may be further strengthened by surface compression treatment—like shot peening—that adds resistance to tensile cracking and smooths the rough surface. And when high precision is required, various machining operations (such as milling or boring) are made to finish critical areas of the casting. Examples of this would include the boring of cylinders and milling of the deck on a cast engine block.

Design requirements[edit]

The part to be made and its pattern must be designed to accommodate each stage of the process, as it must be possible to remove the pattern without disturbing the molding sand and to have proper locations to receive and position the cores. A slight taper, known as draft, must be used on surfaces perpendicular to the parting line, in order to be able to remove the pattern from the mold. This requirement also applies to cores, as they must be removed from the core box in which they are formed. The sprue and risers must be arranged to allow a proper flow of metal and gasses within the mold in order to avoid an incomplete casting. Should a piece of core or mold become dislodged it may be embedded in the final casting, forming a sand pit, which may render the casting unusable. Gas pockets can cause internal voids. These may be immediately visible or may only be revealed after extensive machining has been performed. For critical applications, or where the cost of wasted effort is a factor, non-destructive testing methods may be applied before further work is performed.

Previous: Sand Casting Processes

Next: No Information

Feedback
Qingdao Shengmei Machinery Co.,Ltd

If you have any enquiry about quotation or cooperation, please feel free to email us at shengmei@shengmeicast.com or use the following enquiry form. Our sales representative will contact you within 24 hours. Thank you for your interest in our products.

Copyright © Qingdao Shengmei Machinery Co.,Ltd All Rights Reserved.